Amino Acids : A powerful antibiotic, allicin amino acid is an anti- fungal compound that is found in garlic. However, it does not mean that it can be found in its natural state. When it is chopped or crushed, the enzyme alliinase performs chemically thus converting it to such.
Allicin amino acid may not a be a very steady complex because it slowly disintegrates when it stands and is quickly damaged when cooked. Good thing about it is that it will do a large contribution medicinally, it fights artiosclerosis. It also has the ability to dissolve fats as well as an antioxidant to some extent.
Dubbed as Mother Nature’s insecticide, allicin amino acid was discovered in 1944 by Cavallito et al who primarily recognized its antimicrobial activity. It has a patent for its antifungal activity in test tubes. Albeit, there were no clinical test that were performed and was never developed into a commercial drug because of its absorption inability and foul smell.
There are some manufacturers who attempted to prevent its typical loss so that it would not come together only until after consumption in the hope of producing it inside the body.
It is done by measuring the additional water to garlic products that contain both alliin and alliinase to identify how much has been produced. But it then revealed that actual fabrication inise the body is a whole lot different as that being done in a test tube. This is for the reason that intestinal conditions hamper its generation like the belly acid wrecks aliinase and intestinal fluids depletes the amount multiplied.
The liquids in the belly and intestines have been discovered to weight the aftermath of ordinary digestion on nutrient in question. The enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of alliin called alliinase, has been discovered to be irreversibly neutralized to more than lower than pH3, an acidic environment found in the belly.
Allicin amino acid is actually not bioavailable. There was a study conducted wherein 25 participants consumed a big portion approximately 90, 000 micograms versus crushed raw garlic of ten cloves. It showed that not a trace could be detected in both the blood and urine after 1 to 24 hours of intake.
Because of its towering reactivity, allicin amino acid was revealed to be entirely metabolized in the liver. If it could have reached the blood, it would have illustrated alterations into other compounds within five minutes. Also, in the method, it could have corrode the cells in the blood that brought about them to drop the capability in carrying oxygen.
Prior to that, allicin amino acid is quickly metabolized in the blood and tissues of human beings. It is doubtful however, if it contributes to any other actions in the body such as antithrombotic or better known as, blood thinning.
Amino Acids Arginine
Amino acid arginine is an essential amino acid and is present in the proteins of all life forms. It is classified as a conditionally essential or semi-essential amino acid because under normal conditions the body can produce sufficient quantities of amino acid arginine to meet physiological demands. However, in times of stress conditions such as wound healing and trauma, the body might not be able to manufacture enough.
In these cases, amino acid arginine becomes essential and is very important to ensure sufficient dietary intake of the amino acid to meet the increased physiological demands shaped by these conditions.
Amino acid arginine although not an essential amino acid, is a vital one. In addition to contributing in protein synthesis, it plays a number of other important roles in the body. Amino acid arginine’s primary function entails the metabolism of proteins and nitrogen. It also detoxifies ammonia formed during nitrogen catabolism of amino acids through the formation of urea.
Amino Acids, It is also a forerunner in the formation of polyamines, creatine, nitric oxide, proline, glutamate, agmatin, and the arginine-containing tetrapeptide tuftsin which is believed to be an immunomodulator. Amino acid arginine is also a glycogenic amino acid. If needed by the body, it can be converted to D-glucose and glycogen or can be catabolized to manufacture biological energy.
Arginine when taken in high doses stimulates pituitary release of growth hormones, prolactin and pancreatic release of glucagon and insulin. It is also used as an immunonutrient in parenteral and enteral nutrition to aid improvement of the immune status of those suffering from burns, sepsis, and trauma.
Arginine is predominately manufactured in the kidney. It is a main intermediary in the Krebs-Henseleit urea cycle. A much smaller amount of this amino acid is synthesized in the liver. The normal dietary intake of arginine is 3.5 to 5 grams daily and most dietary arginine comes from animal and plant proteins.
Arginine of small amounts can be found in vegetable juices and fermented foods, such as yogurt and miso. Plant proteins such as soy proteins and other plant proteins are richer in arginine than animal proteins which are richer in lycine. Arginine can also be found in dairy products, meat, poultry, nuts, fish, and chocolate. Other natural sources of arginine are brown rice, raisins, popcorn, and whole-wheat products.
Arginine has a maximum potential in preventing or reducing cardiovascular diseases, by stimulating a compound that relaxes the blood vessels called nitric oxide. It is also used to enhance memory, eliminate depression, improve sleep, control stress, prevent aging, relieve arthritis, manage allergies, promote hair growth, cure impotence, fight cancer, reduce herpes, combat fatigue, and stimulate the immune system. T normal supplemental dosage of arginine per day is 2 to 8 grams.
Amino Acids Glycine
Amino acid glycine is a protein amino acid that can be found in the protein of all life forms and is important in the body’s construction of proteins. Amino acid Glycine is the simplest amino acid in the body that is not optically active. In contrast to other amino acids, glycine stays the most common amino acid found in both enzymes and proteins. Although most amino acid glycine is found in proteins, free glycine is found in body fluids as well as in plants. It is estimated that the normal diet contributes two grams of glycine daily.
Since amino acid glycine can be sufficiently produced by the body to meet physiological requirements, it is considered a nonessential amino acid. However, it is of key importance in the synthesis of proteins, purines, peptides, nucleic acids, porphyrins, hemoglobin, creatine, glucose, one-carbon fragments, L-serine, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and other amino acids.
Amino acid Glycine performs as an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain and spinal cord. It plays vital roles in the method of prevention for muscular degeneration, repair of damaged tissues located throughout the body, and improvement of glycogen storage. Glycine is an important amino acid because if needed, it will synthesize and convert from serine and threonine to fulfill its physiological processes.
Amino Acids, Glycine is a solid water-soluble substance that has a sweetish taste and is also known as amino acetic acid, glycocoll, sucre de gelatine, and aminoethanolic acid. Its one-letter abbreviation when spelling out protein structures is G and its IUPAC abbreviation is Gly.
Glycine can also be found in natural food sources. Natural food sources containing high amounts of glycine includes fish, beans, dairy products, and meats. Here are food sources of glycine that are based on a serving size of 100 g and the amount of glycine contained is expressed in milligrams:
Seaweed, spirulina (dried) 3100 mg
Nut and Seed Products
Seeds, cottonseed meal (partially defatted, glandless) 2380 mg
Seeds, sunflower seed flour (partially defatted) 3080 mg
Seeds, sesame flour (low-fat) 3430 mg
Seeds, pumpkin and squash seed kernels (roasted without salt) 2410 mg
Soy protein concentrate (produced by alcohol extraction) 2690 mg
Peanut flour (defatted) 3150 mg
Soy protein isolate (potassium type) 3600mg
Soy protein concentrate (produced by acid wash) 2690 mg
Soy protein isolate 3600 mg
Shellfish and Finfish Products
Fish, cod, Atlantic (dried and salted) 3010 mg
Chicken, broilers or fryers, skin only (cooked, roasted) 3250 mg
Turkey, all classes, skin only (cooked, roasted) 3140mg
Turkey, young tom, skin only (cooked, roasted) 3210 mg
Beef, cured, breakfast strips (cooked) 2610 mg
Pork, fresh, variety meats and by-products, ears, frozen (Cooked, simmered) 3140 mg
Pork, fresh, variety meats and by-products, ears, frozen (raw) 4400 mg
Veal, Lamb, and Game Products
Veal, variety meats and by-products, liver (cooked, braised calf liver) 2290 mg
Luncheon Meats and Sausages
Beef, cured, corned beef, canned 2260 mg
Egg and Dairy Products
Egg, white (dried) 2840 mg
Snacks, pork skins (plain) 11900 mg
Gelatins, dry powder (unsweetened) 19100 mg
Gelatin, drinking, orange flavor (powder) 9670 mg
Amino Acid in Blood
Amino acids are known to be the building blocks of the body and play a vital role in the construction of proteins which is very essential for bodily functions. However, recent studies have shown that high amount of an amino acid called homocysteine in blood is a biomarker for cardiovascular diseases and age-macular degeneration (AMD), the leading cause of blindness in senior citizens.
Homocysteine is an amino acid in the blood which epidemiological studies have shown that too much homocystein amino acid in blood (plasma) is connected to a higher risk of strokes, peripheral vascular disease, and heart disease. Furthermore, evidence suggests that homocysteine may have an outcome on atherosclerosis through harming the inner lining of the arteries and promote blood clots.
High levels of homocysteine amino acid in blood are strongly manipulated by diet as well as genetic factors. Dietary components which have a big effect on lowering down homocysteine are vitamin B6, B12, and folic acid. Other B vitamins and folic acid helps in breaking down homocysteine in the body.
Studies have shown that higher blood levels of B vitamins results partly to low concentrations of homocysteine. And low levels of folic acid are connected to higher risk of stroke and fatal coronary heart disease. Dietary foods that are high in folic acid include grain products fortified with folic acid and green leafy vegetables.
In the large study of the relationship of amino acids in blood and AMD researchers have measured the fasting plasma homocysteine levels of nine hundred thirty four individuals who participated in an ancillary study of Age-Related Eye Disease Study resulted to five hundred forty seven people with AMD.
This research which was conducted at the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary and Devers Eye Institute in Portland, Ore, found that elevated homocysteine amino acid in blood may be another biomarker for the increased risk of AMD. Homocysteine amino acid in blood may be reduced by dietary intake of vitamins B12, B6, and folate; however further studies is needed between the relationship of this amino acid and AMD.
It was found out by researchers that middle values were higher among those people with advanced stages of AMD than those people without AMD, controlling for age, and other factors. More findings add that there may be overlapping disease mechanisms between AMD and cardiovascular diseases.
Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD) is the principal cause of blindness and irreversible visual impairment among persons aged sixty years old and older. With the population of elderly people steadily growing, the number related to this loss of visual function will increase. The treatment for this still remains to be limited and prevention still remains to be the best approach for tackling this public health concern.
Amino Acid Lysine
Amino acid lysine is an essential amino acid which is vital to human health but cannot be synthesized by the human body. This is the reason why amino acid lysine must be obtained from daily food diet. Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins and proteins are greatly needed by the body. Amino acid lysine plays an important role in the production of a nutrient that is responsible for converting fatty acids into energy and helps lower cholesterol, carnitine nutrient.
Amino acid lysine also shows to help the body in absorbing and conserving calcium. It also plays a vital role in the formation of collagen, an important substance for the bones and connective tissues that includes the skin, cartilage and tendon.
Insufficient lysine in the diet may cause health problems such as kidney stones that may develop other health problems including loss of appetite, nausea, dizziness, fatigue, agitation, slow growth, anemia, reproductive disorders, and bloodshot eyes. However, it is very rare to get insufficient amounts of lysine through the daily diet. Lysine deficiency would normally only apply to vegetarians and certain athletes who are in frequent vigorous exercise. Vegetarians would get the best source of lysine in legumes such as peas, lentils, and beans.
In foods such as pastries, cookies, doughnuts, and cereals, the browning reaction involves lysine. In this process of lysine and sugar being combined makes it in a way difficult for the body to absorb lysine, resulting to low lysine intake in cereals and baked goods diet. Good food sources of lysine are those foods rich in protein which includes meat, cheese, nuts, eggs, certain fish, soybeans, fenugreek seed, and spirulina.
Amino acid lysine can be used in the treatment of genital and mouth lesions caused by herpes simplex virus as well as shingles caused by herpes zoster viruses. Lysine supplements taken can speed up recovery time and reduce the possibility of repeated breakouts of the herpes infection.
Amino acid lysine also improves the absorption of calcium from the digestive tract and avoids loss of calcium in the urine, which some researchers have speculated that bone loss associated with osteoporosis can be prevented through the help of lysine. In studies where lysine has been combined with arginine showed that it increases the activity of bone-building cells and improves production of collagen.
Some forms of lysine or lysine bound to anti-inflammatory medications may help ease pain following an episiotomy, a medical procedure performed during labor that is a procedure of cutting the vaginal area to enlarge the vaginal opening and facilitate delivery. Lysine of these forms may also relieve painful periods and migraine headaches.
Most people need about 1 gram of lysine per day. For athletes and people recovering from major injuries such as burns may be required a greater amount.
Amino Acids Metabolism
Described for its complexity brought about by the large number involved, amino acid metabolism can actually be split into 20 protein block- builders that are significant for biosynthesis.
Functioning as precursors for the manufacturing of a lot of molecules that send signals, they are also unique from the peculiar ones that are utilized for a variety of intermediary pathways and activated one- carbon unit for the aromatic production.
Prior to the metabolic fate of the carbon atoms, they can actually be detected to all the chief intermediates due to the close interaction of amino acid metabolism with the citric acid cycle and glycolysis. Those intermediates comprises of carbons from pyruvate, acetyl- CoA, acetoacetyl- CoA, a- ketoglutarate, succinyl- CoA, fumarate, malate and oxaloacetate.
It is actually separated into several pathways according to the diverse length of carbon structures engaged. They are referred to as C3, C4 and C5 families of protein block- builders that generate common end products during catabolism. C3 includes alanine, serine and cysteine which are all corrupted to pyruvate. C4 have aspartate and asparagoine that are tainted to oxaloacetate that are closely linked to glutamate. C5 comprises of glutamine, proline, arginine and hitidine that are all deaminated to alpha- ketoglutarate.
Phenylalanine, tyrosine trytophan are the three pungent amino acid metabolism. They all contain benzene ring which are hydroxylated. The relationships they have for each other actually cause the acceleration to an intricate nutritional liberty. The disorder in the otherhand like the impairment of fabricating tyrosine from phenylalanine makes the previous one of the essentials needed very much in the body. The lack of biosynthetic pathways in human beings is the reason why there are plenty of sicknesses associated with malnutrition.
First converted to tyrosine by the accumulation of a hydroxyl unit, phenylalanine is a reaction catalyzed by phenylalanine hydroxylase. This is actually a liver specific enzyme which belongs to the group of monooxygenases. Such requires molecular oxygen, NADPH and coenzyme tetra- hydrobiopterine. Rememeber that hydroxylation of the benzene ring is utilized to destabilize in the preparation of the ring formation for breakup.
An amino acid metabolism that is a liver resident process, Tyrosine starts out with alteration of its amino group to alpha- ketoglutarate by a certain method used. This is similar to both that accepts transminases and less substrate which acts on aspartate. It is an enzyme isoform that is obtained from aromatic amino acid transaminase by restrained proteolysis.
With the degradation in human that yields to precursors for glucose synthesis, tryptophan is the first step that is catalyzed and controlled by cortisol. It stimulates its own degradation by allosterically activating tryptophan oxygenase. The product of the said reaction is L- formylkynurenine that is further degraded by kynurenine formidase.
Amino Acid Supplements
Protein block- builders are not in any way developed in the body. Without an adequate supply of those essentials, the communication is interrupted and intracellular instruction cannot take place. Also, the organs can become neurologically isolated from each other.
They can only be obtained through food sources such as meats, legumes, grains and many more. Aside from that, there are also plenty of amino acid supplements that can be bought in drugstores without a doctor’s prescription.
L- Tryptophan Powder by Doctor’s Best available at $28. 50
An essential protein block- builder, L- tryptophan are not manufactured by the body but can only be achieved in a human being’s diet. This has been tested for purity by the United States Pharmaopeia standards to ensure safety. This is one of the amino acid supplements that alone contains 500 milligrams of L- tryptophan. It is suggested to use only single scoop everyday then consume with water or juice. (Call 866- 328- 1171 to order.)
ProTec+ by Vaxa available at $24. 95
Claiming to be the most advanced free- form, ProTec+ has 18 essential protein block- builders in its purest quality. Its contents have shown to naturally permit smooth neurotransmission, support tissue growth, bone reproduction, expedite healing processes, inhibit painful feelings and metabolism influence. (Call l 1-877-622- 8292 to order.)
Max Amino by Country Life available at $13. 42
Of sheer pharmaceutical grade, Max Amino contains B6 that assists in the utilization of protein block- builders. This is one of the amino acid supplements that contains L- Glutamic Acid in 180mg, L- Leucine in 160mg, L- Serine in 160mg, L- Valine in 150mg, L- Aspartic Acid in 140mg, L- Isoleucine in 130mg, L- Lysine in 120mg, L- Phenylalanine in 110mg, L- Threonine in 100mg and many more. (Call 866- 328- 1171 to order.)
Amino Athlete by Source Naturals available at $13. 86
A balanced blend of 223 protein block- builders that consist of some that involved in the natural maintenance of muscular tissue, Amino Athlete also contains ingredients that assist in the utilization of fatty acids for energy. This is one of the amino acid supplements that is excellent for individuals who want to maximize the benefits they get from exercise activities and sports competitions. It has 15mg of Vitamin C, 5mg of Vitamin B6, 23mg of Calcium and many more. (Call 866- 328- 1171 to order.)
Amino Surge by Jarrow Formulas available at $13. 17
Having both free- form and polypeptide- bond, Amino Surge is rich in various forms of protein block- builders. It contains much of branched- chain amino acids or BCAAs that significant in structuring muscle mass and promote positive nitrogen balance. For those who are in aerobic training, take two to three tablets 30 minutes before meals. As for those in anaerobic training, take four to six tablets 30 to 60 minutes before exercise. (Call 866- 328- 1171 to order.)